Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Research 2015. 2(1-2):95-102.

The pattern of maxillofacial fractures: a study of 302 patients and a discussion of fracture classification
Mohammad Ramezanian, Hamid Mahmoud-Hashemi, Touraj Vaezi, Majid Beshkar, Mahboube Hasheminasab


Introduction: The incidence and etiology of maxillofacial fractures vary widely between different countries. Understanding the cause and pattern of these injuries can assist in establishing clinical and research priorities for more effective treatment and prevention of maxillofacial injuries. The study aimed to  evaluate  the  etiology  and  pattern  of  maxillofacial  fractures  in  trauma patients hospitalized in Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran.

Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of all maxillofacial fracture patients admitted to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery was performed during a 12-month period from November 2010 to November 2011. Recorded data included age, sex, cause of trauma, and the pattern of maxillofacial fractures.

Results: A total of 302 consecutive patients were included in the study, with a male to female ratio of 3.4:1. Most patients (41.3%) were in the third decade of  life  (20-29  year-old).  Motor  vehicle  accidents  (MVA)  were  the  most common cause of injury (50%), followed by interpersonal violence (30%). Mandible fracture was the most common fracture (41%), followed by midface fracture (34%). Fracture of the body of the mandible (24%) was the most common mandible fracture; and the most common midface fracture was zygomaticomaxillary fracture (32%).

Conclusions: In most other epidemiologic studies of maxillofacial fractures, MVA was the main cause of injury; and mandible the most common site of fracture. However, the vagueness and imprecision in the classification and nomenclature of maxillofacial fractures has led to confusing results that are difficult to compare.


Maxillofacial Trauma; Epidemiology; Fracture

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