Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Research http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr Tehran University of Medical Sciences en-US Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Research 2345-5489 <p><strong>Agreement Form</strong></p><p>A signature of author below certifies compliance with the following statements:</p><p>Copyright transfer; in signing this Agreement:</p><p><strong><em>1.</em></strong> I hereby warrant that this article is an original work, has not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere in its final form either in printed or electronic form;</p><p><strong><em>2.</em></strong> I hereby warrant that you have obtained permission from the copyright holder to reproduce in the Article (in all media including print and electronic form) material not owned by you, and that you have acknowledged the source;</p><p><strong><em>3.</em></strong> I hereby warrant that this article contains no violation of any existing copyright, moral rights or other third party right or any material of an obscene, indecent, defamatory or otherwise unlawful nature and that to the best of your knowledge this Article does not infringe the rights of others;</p><p><strong><em>4. </em></strong>I hereby warrant that in the case of a multi-authored Article you have obtained, in writing, authorization to enter into this Agreement on their behalf and that all co-authors have read and agreed the terms of this agreement;</p><p><strong><em>5.</em></strong> I warrant that any formula or dosage given is accurate and will not if properly followed injure any person;</p><p><strong><em>6.</em></strong> I have made a significant scientific contribution to the study and I have read the complete manuscript and take responsibility for the content and completeness of the final surmised manuscript;</p><p><strong><em>7.</em></strong> I will indemnify and keep indemnified the Editors, the Journal's Editor against all claims and expenses (including legal costs and expenses) arising from any breach of this warranty and the other warranties on your behalf in this Agreement.</p><p><strong><em><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Conflict of interest disclosure</span></em></strong></p><p>All institutional or corporeal affixations of mine and all funding sources for the study are acknowledged. I certify that I have no commercial association that might represent a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted manuscript.</p><p>Corresponding author</p><p> </p><p> </p> Processing techniques of acrylic resin in removable and maxillofacial prosthesis: A review http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/258 <p>Compression molding with heat activation for resin polymerization is the conventional method for <br>processing acrylic resin in removable and maxillofacial prosthesis. Overtime, different processing <br>methods have been improved to overcome physical and chemical problems in cured resin with <br>conventional technique. Enough knowledge about each method is necessary for both dentist and <br>laboratory technician. The aim of this study is review the improved techniques for curing resin <br>and comparison between them. An online search of PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google <br>Scholar was conducted using key words “denture possessing technique” and “acrylic resins” from <br>1970 until September 2018. The most common and successful techniques are injection molding <br>and conventional methods. CAD/CAM technologyis especially useful for maxillofacial prosthesis <br>but still needs more studies. <br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Denture possessing technique, Acrylic resins, Maxillofacial prosthesis, Removable <br>prosthesis.</p> Somayeh Allahyari Somayeh Niakan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 5 3 99 104 Knowledge and practice of senior medical students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences toward emergency management of tooth avulsion http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/267 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Since physicians are frequently the first one to actually provide primary treatment <br>in case of tooth avulsion, they need to have sufficient awareness in the basic principles of <br>management this emergency situation. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and self-reported <br>practice of senior medical students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) about <br>managing tooth avulsion. <br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge and self-reported <br>practice of senior medical students (n=150) in TUMS towards management of tooth avulsion. <br>A standard anonymous questionnaire obtained from previous studies was distributed among <br>students. The questionnaire was consisted of questions on backgrounds (age, gender, previous <br>encounter with tooth avulsion, previous education on management of traumatic dental injuries-<br>TDIs); knowledge, and self-reported practice regarding tooth avulsion management; and satisfaction <br>(self-competency, importance of educational programs, knowledge self-assessment, and <br>willingness for further education). After collecting the questionnaires, the answers were scored and <br>results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, linear regression model and Pearson correlation <br>coefficient.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Totally, 126 questionnaires were collected (Response rate= 84%) of whom 49 (%38.9) <br>were male and 77 (%61.1) were female, with the mean age 25.1±1.2. Previous encounter with tooth <br>avulsion was reported by 18 students (14.3%). Only five students (%4) had received education <br>regarding TDIs. The knowledge, and self-reported practice mean score were 3.82±1.29 (out of 12), <br>and 4.44±0.7 (out of 8), respectively. None of background variables had a significant relationship <br>with the knowledge, and self-reported practice mean scores. There was no correlation between <br>students’ knowledge and self-reported practice. More than 97% of students reported low/very low <br>self-competency for replantation of an avulsed tooth. Majority of the participants (%84.2) were <br>dissatisfied with their level of knowledge and suggested that further education on the topic should <br>be offered. <br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results indicated that there is a need to improve the knowledge of medical <br>students regarding management of traumatic dental injuries. <br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Wounds and injuries, Medical students, Knowledge, Tooth avulsion.</p> Samaneh Razeghi Simin Zahra Mohebbi Leila Mehrtalab Mohammad Javad Kharrazi Fard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 5 3 105 111 The role of postoperative administration of antibiotics in prevention of infection after open reduction of mandibular compound fractures: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled pilot clinical study http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/268 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: This study determines the effectiveness and/or necessity of applying postoperative <br>antibiotics in the treatment of mandible fractures. <br><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This is a randomized, double-blind clinical study using a placebo <br>control. 65 patients diagnosed with mandibular fractures underwent open reduction and internal <br>fixation surgery. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: antibiotic group (38 patients) <br>and placebo group (27 patients), based on whether or not they received postoperative antibiotics. <br>Both groups received preoperative as well as intraoperative antibiotics on the day of surgery. The <br>antibiotic group was postoperatively given clindamycin 600 mg IV every 8 hours for 5-7 days. The <br>placebo group received placebo using the same schedule for the same duration as the antibiotic <br>group. Follow-up examination was performed at discharge, 2 and 3 weeks, postoperatively. <br><strong>Results:</strong> A total number of 65 patients participated in this study; 50 (76.9%) males and 15 <br>(23.1%) females. The evidence of surgical site infection was noted in 24 out of 65 patients within <br>3 weeks post-operation totally, 13 out of 38 patients in the antibiotic group (34.3%) and 11 out of <br>27 patients in the placebo group (40.7%) had evidence of surgical site infections. No statistically <br>significant difference in the incidence of infection was noted between the groups (p&lt;.368).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study could not statistically prove any beneficial effect for post-operative <br>administration of antibiotics in patients undergoing open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular <br>fractures. <br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Mandible fractures, Open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), Antibiotic, Antibiotic <br>resistance, Infection.</p> Mehrnoush Momeni Mostafa Mortazavi Minou Najarnobari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 5 3 112 118 Epidemiological features of oral squamous cell carcinoma http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/269 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common head and neck cancer. <br>According to the role of epidemiological data in planning and effective interventions, the aim for <br>the current study was a five-year review of oral squamous cell carcinoma. <br><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this cross-sectional study, the data was derived from 76 recorded <br>files of patients with oral SCC (OSCC) in Shariati hospital at the Tehran University of Medical <br>Sciences from 2010 to 2015. The data included demographic variables, risk factors and lesion <br>characteristics. The collected data has been analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive analysis was <br>presented. <br><strong>Results</strong>: In this study 52 patients were male (68.4%) and 24 patients were female (31.6%). The <br>mean age of patients was 60.5 ± 12.80 years. The prevalence of OSCC among men was 2.2 times <br>more than women. The most common sites of tumor were buccal mucosa (36.8%) and then mandibular <br>ridge (34.2%) and the most common clinical symptoms of tumor were painful tooth/teeth <br>which are not mobile (69.7%) and ulcer (64.5%). Based on histological grading, 64.5% of patients <br>had well-differentiated lesions. <br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of this study indicate that OSCC was more common in men and seniors. <br>It also has involved buccal mucosa and mandibular ridge. The majorities of OSCC lesions <br>were well-differentiated in the oral cavity, and were in stages two and three in TNM system. <br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Oral cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma, Oral squamous cell carcinoma.</p> Ahmad Jafari Abbas Karimi Mitra Salamat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 5 3 119 124 Use of autogenous tooth bone graft with dental implants http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/240 <p>Bone grafting is an appropriate solution for treatment of some cases of bone defect. Till now, <br>different method and biomaterial has been described for bone grafting. According to structural <br>similarities between bone tissue and tooth structure and some successful studies on application of <br>autogenous bone graft materials, we decided to use this biomaterial to treat a bone defect resulting <br>from tooth extraction. In this case, a healthy 36-year-old man visited us for extraction of the left <br>mandibular first molar. In order to preserve the tooth socket, we used the patient’s own extracted <br>teeth instead of using routine bone graft materials. The tooth powder processed by the device called <br>the BONMAKER and placed in the socket. After 4 mouths, the radiographic evaluation showed a <br>good bone density. Fixture placement and prosthetic restoration were done and the patient’s 5-year <br>follow-up showed good aesthetic, excellent osseointegration and little to no bone resorption, indicating <br>the reliability of this autogenous graft material. <br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bone graft, Socket preservation, Autograft, Tooth, Implant.</p> Amirhosein Pakravan Maedeh Yousefnezhad Amin Heydarian Tahmineh Bamdadian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 5 3 125 130 A report of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in the 29 month old girl: A case report http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/270 <p>Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is an uncommon benign mixed odontogenic tumor. AFO <br>presents as a painless swelling in the posterior of mandible or maxilla that radiographically shows a <br>well-defined radiolucent area containing various amounts of radiopaque deposits. Most cases occur <br>before 20 years of age, with the average age of diagnoses being 9 years. This case report describes <br>AFO affecting anterior mandible in the 29 month old girl. The lesion was surgically excised, and <br>no recurrence was observed on 2 month follow-up. <br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, Odontogenic tumours, Benign jaws lesions.</p> Hasan Mirmohamad Sadeghi Masoume Fayazi Boroujeni Behnaz Poorian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 5 3 131 135 Oral lichen planus in a child in association with psychological stress: A case report http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/248 <p>Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune cell-mediated disease affecting mucocotaneous <br>tissues of oral cavity. Recent studies revealed that psychological stress may act as a trigger to initiate <br>clinical symptoms. An 8-year-old girl complaining of oral ulcer, pain and irritation in mouth <br>with onset of 3 months ago, was admitted to oral medicine department. Her medical history was <br>negative except for severe psychological trauma in last 6 months. Intraoral examination showed <br>bluish purple atrophic erosive striations with hyperkeratosis. Pathological study of buccal lesions <br>confirmed OLP diagnosis. As all primary investigations were negative; psychogenic origin was <br>suspected. Although it is rare for a child to have OLP but it should be taken into consideration in <br>differential diagnosis of red and white oral lesions in children. Huge impact of psychological factors <br>in the occurrence of oral diseases have suggested that they should be treated in combination <br>with psychotherapy. <br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Oral, Lichen planus, Infant, Stress.</p> Arghavan Tonkaboni Bita Maraghehpour ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 5 3 136 138 Maxillary sinus mucocele: A case report http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/254 <p>Maxillary sinus mucocele is a benign uncommon cyst which is caused by the progressive accumulation <br>of mucous. It presents with a slowly expanding growth and is asymptomatic at the beginning. <br>Its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and mostly due to pressure effects on the orbit or other <br>facial structures. The etiology of sinus mucocele formation is not well knowm. However, it is proposed <br>that its formation might be due to obstruction of the ostium by inflammation or previous <br>procedures such as Caldwell–Luc surgery. Endoscopic marsupialization of the mucocele is the <br>procedure of choice, even though complicated cases are best treated by intraoral open procedures. <br>We present a case of huge maxillary mucocele with a historyof previous maxillary sinus surgery. <br>Presentation and classic treatment are discussed. <br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Mucocele, Maxillary sinus.</p> Tayebeh Ghasemi Farzaneh Bolandparva Majid Beshkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 5 3 139 142