Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Research http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr Tehran University of Medical Sciences en-US Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Research 2345-5489 <p><strong>Agreement Form</strong></p><p>A signature of author below certifies compliance with the following statements:</p><p>Copyright transfer; in signing this Agreement:</p><p><strong><em>1.</em></strong> I hereby warrant that this article is an original work, has not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere in its final form either in printed or electronic form;</p><p><strong><em>2.</em></strong> I hereby warrant that you have obtained permission from the copyright holder to reproduce in the Article (in all media including print and electronic form) material not owned by you, and that you have acknowledged the source;</p><p><strong><em>3.</em></strong> I hereby warrant that this article contains no violation of any existing copyright, moral rights or other third party right or any material of an obscene, indecent, defamatory or otherwise unlawful nature and that to the best of your knowledge this Article does not infringe the rights of others;</p><p><strong><em>4. </em></strong>I hereby warrant that in the case of a multi-authored Article you have obtained, in writing, authorization to enter into this Agreement on their behalf and that all co-authors have read and agreed the terms of this agreement;</p><p><strong><em>5.</em></strong> I warrant that any formula or dosage given is accurate and will not if properly followed injure any person;</p><p><strong><em>6.</em></strong> I have made a significant scientific contribution to the study and I have read the complete manuscript and take responsibility for the content and completeness of the final surmised manuscript;</p><p><strong><em>7.</em></strong> I will indemnify and keep indemnified the Editors, the Journal's Editor against all claims and expenses (including legal costs and expenses) arising from any breach of this warranty and the other warranties on your behalf in this Agreement.</p><p><strong><em><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Conflict of interest disclosure</span></em></strong></p><p>All institutional or corporeal affixations of mine and all funding sources for the study are acknowledged. I certify that I have no commercial association that might represent a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted manuscript.</p><p>Corresponding author</p><p> </p><p> </p> Oral and dental complications caused by methamphetamine use: A review http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/205 <p><strong>Background and Objectives</strong>: Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system. It also negatively affects the oral and dental health. This narrative review aims to review the oral and dental complications caused by methamphetamine use.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: In this narrative review, an electronic search of the literature was carried out in Google Scholar, PubMed and SID databases for original articles published from 2000 to 2017 using the keywords “meth”, “mouth”, “methamphetamine”, “dental caries”, “oral health” and “dental problem”.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The most prevalent complications caused by methamphetamine use were xerostomia (94%), bad taste in the mouth (91%), extensive caries (89%), facial muscle stiffness (73%), dental esthetic problems (68%) and increased acidity of the saliva (68%). Temporomandibular joint problem had the lowest prevalence (13%).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Long-term methamphetamine use causes adverse oral and dental changes. By having adequate knowledge about the prevalence and physiopathology of these complications, clinicians can promote oral and dental health and decrease treatment costs.<br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Methamphetamine, Dental Caries, Bruxism, Meth Mouth, Gingival Inflammation.</p> Reza Yazdani Hossein Hessari Saeed Rahmani Mohammad Javad Kharazi Fard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-15 2018-06-15 61 66 Radio frequency effects on patients with trigeminal neuralgia http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/201 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Trigeminal neuralgia is one of the most painful conditions in the head and face. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects and results of RF therapy on patients with trigeminal neuralgia who referred to Amir-alam Hospital.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: In this descriptive study, 84 patients with trigeminal neuralgia pain were studied. Patients were diagnosed based on their medical histories, physical examination, and paraclinical tests. Patients are admitted according to internationally accepted criteria such as the International Headache Society (IHS). The patients responded to the questions in the questionnaire before and after the surgery. In this questionnaire, the pain level of patients is assessed by the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS).<br><strong>Results</strong>: The mean pain score before treatment was 7.87, which decreased to 4.83 after the treatment.<br>According to the results obtained in this study, 18 patients (21.4%) felt 4 levels of decrease in pain, as the predominant level of relief. Also, 15 patients (17.9%) did not feel any subtraction of pain after the treatment. Of the 84 patients, only 1 patient experienced the reduction of pain as 9 levels of VAS, after the treatment. There was a significant relationship (P=0.000) between the pain severity and the reduction in the amount of pain after the RF in respect to the amount before the treatment. Also, in the regression equation obtained from the study of the effects and role of patients’ age, gender, as well as the history of pain in patients before the RF treatment, only the gender of the patients had a significant relationship with the amount of pain reduction and comparison of its pre and post treatment. (P=0.054) and (B= -0.886) and (β= -0.216). Also, there was no significant relationship between pain intensity (P=0.761), age of patients (P=0.829), or history of pain<br>(P=0.139) with pain reduction and comparison of pain intensity before and after RF treatment. During the treatment of RF, very few side effects was reported.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: According to the results, RF treatment is an effective method for reducing pain in both short-term and long-term pain, in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. It is suggested that in patients suffering from the pain resulting caused by trigeminal neuralgia, due to drug resistance or who are intolerance to possible adverse effects, or in patients with lack of response from drug therapy, the therapeutic approach of RF is a valuable way for pain relief.<br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Trigeminal Neuralgia, Facial Pain, Radiofrequency, Interventional Approach.</p> Shamsolmolouk Najafi Arman Taheri Mohammad Javad Kharrazi Fard Ali Farahini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-15 2018-06-15 67 73 Immunohistochemical expression of SOX2 in oral normal epithelial, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/204 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an aggressive neoplasm with serious morbidity<br>and mortality, which typically spreads through local invasive growth. A key approach to this tumor would be to detect potentially malignant lesions at their early stages. The transcription factor, Sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is an essential regulator of pluripotent stem cells and promotes developmentand maintenance of squamous epithelia.<br><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 24 samples of SCC, oral epithelial dysplasia and control group, then immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect SOX2 expression.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Comparisons between SCC and oral epithelial dysplasia group did not reveal any significant<br>difference (p=0.496); also values of control and oral epithelial dysplasia group were statically different (p&lt;0.001). Similarly, a significant difference was observed between the values of SCC and controls’ (p&lt;0.001).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In conclusion, SOX2 overexpression is seen in oral dysplasia and SCC and their detection in early stages could be crucial for early tumor identification.<br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Oral squamous cell carcinoma,oral epithelial dysplasia, SOX2.</p> Pouria Motahhary Mahnaz Sahebjamee Maryam Nasimi Zohreh Khodashenas Fatemeh Hajian Kambiz Kamyab ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-23 2018-09-23 74 79 Odontogenic keratocyst of mandibular condylar region: A case report http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/244 <p>The Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) today is called Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT) by the WHO, consider as a benign intraosseous developmental odontogenic tumor and may be presented in unicystic or multicystic variants. The tumor is surrounded by stratified squamous parakeratinized or orthokeratinized epithelium and has invasive or infiltrative behavior. It happens in the second and third decades of life, and often is more prevalent among males. In this case report we describes an unusual case of OKC in the condylar region and its infiltration into parotid gland which is very rare and minimal clinical presentation indicative of a tumor.<br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Odontogenic Keratocyst, Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor, Infiltration, Parotid, Mandibular condyle.</p> Abbas Karimi Reza Amirzargar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-15 2018-06-15 80 85 Peripheral osteoma associated with peripheral ossifying fibroma: A case report http://jcr.tums.ac.ir/index.php/jcr/article/view/232 <p>Osteoma is a benign osteogenic neoplasm composed of mature compact or cancellous bone and classified as central, peripheral or extra-skeletal. Peripheral type of osteoma is rare. The maxillary sinuses are the most common sites of involvement. It is rare in jaws. Peripheral ossifying fibroma is a reactive lesion of oral tissues, associated with local factors such as trauma or irritation factors. In this paper, we presented the first case of solitary peripheral osteoma associated with peripheral ossifying fibroma. The lesion was located in the lingual surface of the left posterior area of mandible in a 32-year-old woman. The lesion was removed surgically, and no recurrence has been observed after six months follow up.<br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Peripheral osteoma, Peripheral ossifying fibroma, Mandible.</p> Mohammadsadegh Safarian Samira Derakhshan Monir Moradzadeh Khiavi Arzhang Baghi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-15 2018-06-15 86 89