Original Article

Prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients

Abstract

Background: Nowadays COVID-19 has become a pandemic in which global society experience multiple difficulties in management. It seems that olfactory dysfunction is one of the early occurring symptoms of this viral infection and many patients just show this symptom after they got infected. Considering so, olfactory dysfunction especially a decline in olfaction could potentially be used for screening purposes and preventing the disease to spread. Materials and Methods: 50 PCR-verified SARS-CoV-2 infected participants were assessed about their olfactory function adequacy using a Modified Version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) for the Iranian population called Iran Smell Identification Test (Iran-SIT). Participants scores were compared against normal population scores in this test and possible correlations of age and scores were explored as well. Results: Participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection generally obtained lesser scores in the mentioned test which means they experience a decline in olfactory function more, significantly. Aging also has a negative correlation with olfaction adequacy. Conclusion: Based on this article’s finding, olfactory function decrease is more frequent among SARS-CoV-2 infected people and potentially could be a suggestive indicator for screening programs. This indicator should be interpreted concerning patients’ age. Keywords: COVID-19; Olfactory dysfunction; Anosmia; Early detection.
1. Cucinotta, D.; Vanelli, M. WHO Declares COVID-19 a Pandemic. Acta Biomed 2020, 91, 157-160, doi:10.23750/abm.v91i1.9397.
2. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Weekly Epidemiological Update and Weekly Operational Update. Availabe online: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports/ (accessed on November 23, 2020).
3. Huang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, X.; Wei, Z.; Zhang, L.; Xu, J.; Liang, P.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, C.; Xu, A. Rapid asymptomatic transmission of COVID-19 during the incubation period demonstrating strong infectivity in a cluster of youngsters aged 16-23 years outside Wuhan and characteristics of young patients with COVID-19: A prospective contact-tracing study. J Infect 2020, 80, e1-e13, doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.006.
4. Zhang, C.; Huang, S.; Zheng, F.; Dai, Y. Controversial treatments: An updated understanding of the coronavirus disease 2019. J Med Virol 2020, 10.1002/jmv.25788, doi:10.1002/jmv.25788.
5. Steier, J.; Moxham, J. The load and capacity model of healthcare delivery: considerations for the crisis management of the COVID-19 pandemic. J Thorac Dis 2020, 12, 3022-3030, doi:10.21037/jtd-2020-054.
6. Esakandari, H.; Nabi-Afjadi, M.; Fakkari-Afjadi, J.; Farahmandian, N.; Miresmaeili, S.M.; Bahreini, E. A comprehensive review of COVID-19 characteristics. Biol Proced Online 2020, 22, 19, doi:10.1186/s12575-020-00128-2.
7. Bhattacharjee, A.S.; Joshi, S.V.; Naik, S.; Sangle, S.; Abraham, N.M. Quantitative assessment of olfactory dysfunction accurately detects asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers. EClinicalMedicine 2020, 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100575, 100575, doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100575.
8. Suzuki, M.; Saito, K.; Min, W.P.; Vladau, C.; Toida, K.; Itoh, H.; Murakami, S. Identification of viruses in patients with postviral olfactory dysfunction. Laryngoscope 2007, 117, 272-277, doi:10.1097/01.mlg.0000249922.37381.1e.
9. Taherkhani, S.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Mehdizadeh Seraj, J.; Hashemi Nazari, S.S.; Taherkhani, F.; Gharehdaghi, J.; Okazi, A.; Pouraghaei, S. Iran Smell Identification Test (Iran-SIT): a Modified Version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) for Iranian Population. Chemosensory Perception 2015, 8, 183-191, doi:10.1007/s12078-015-9192-9.
10. Corp, I. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp., 2012.
11. Yombi, J.C.; De Greef, J.; Marsin, A.S.; Simon, A.; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H.; Penaloza, A.; Belkhir, L. Symptom-based screening for COVID-19 in health care workers: The importance of fever. J Hosp Infect 2020, 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.05.028, doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2020.05.028.
12. Peck, K.R. Early diagnosis and rapid isolation: response to COVID-19 outbreak in Korea. Clin Microbiol Infect 2020, 26, 805-807, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2020.04.025.
13. Gane, S.B.; Kelly, C.; Hopkins, C. Isolated sudden onset anosmia in COVID-19 infection. A novel syndrome? Rhinology 2020, 58, 299-301, doi:10.4193/Rhin20.114.
14. Boyce, J.M.; Shone, G.R. Effects of ageing on smell and taste. Postgrad Med J 2006, 82, 239-241, doi:10.1136/pgmj.2005.039453.
Files
IssueVol 8, No 1 (Winter 2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Published2021-07-07
Keywords
COVID-19; Olfactory dysfunction; Anosmia; Early detection.

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Bayat M, Arabi AM, Assadi AA, Nezami Nia S, Mortezazadeh M, Mohamadnia A, Bahrami N. Prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. J Craniomaxillofac Res. 8(1):16-21.