Prevalence and position of mandibular incisive canal, anterior loop of the mandibular canal and lingual foramen using cone beam computed tomography
AbstractObjective: Comprehensive knowledge about the anatomy of the surgical site is an important prerequisite for any surgical procedure. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, position and anatomical characteristics of mandibular incisive canal (MIC), lingual foramen (LF) and anterior loop of the mandibular canal (ALMC) in an Iranian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 103 patients who underwent CBCT prior to implant placement. The CBCT scans of patients were evaluated by two observers to determine the visibility and length of MIC, LF and ALMC. The buccolingual inclination of MIC at the initiation point of canal and canal path were also studied. Results: The prevalence of MIC, LF and ALMC was 90%, 76% and 84% on CBCT scans, respectively. The mean length of MIC and ALMC was 7.5mm and 1.2mm, respectively and the mean width of LF was 0.9mm. The MIC had a buccal inclination at the initiation point and approximated the lingual plate as extended towards the midline. Analytical statistics including independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, ANOVA analyses were applied. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of MIC, ALMC and LF and wide range of MIC (1.2mm to 20mm) and ALMC (1mm to 9.9mm) length, CBCT is recommended for patients prior to surgical procedures in the anterior mandible to determine the exact location of these anatomical structures.Keywords: Mandible; Lingual frenum; Cone-beam computed tomography.
2. Al-Mahalawy H, Al-Aithan H, Al-Kari B, Al-Jandan B, Shujaat S. Determination of the position of mental foramen and frequency of anterior loop in Saudi population. A retrospective CBCT study. Saudi Dent J 2017;29(1):29-35.
3. Apostolakis D, Brown JE. The dimensions of the mandibular incisive canal and its spatial relationship to various anatomical landmarks of the mandible: a study using cone beam computed tomography. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013;28:117-124.
4. Rosa MB, Sotto-Maior BS, Machado Vde C, Francischone CE. Retrospective study of the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve and the incisive canal using cone beam computed tomography. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013;28:388-392.
5. Wong SK, Patil PG. Measuring anterior loop length of the inferior alveolar nerve to estimate safe zone in implant planning: a CBCT study in a Malaysian population. J Prosthet Dent 2018;120(2):210-3.
6. Prakash O, Srivastava PK, Jyoti B, Mushtaq R, Vyas T, Usha P. Radiographic evaluation of anterior loop of inferior alveolar nerve: A cone-beam computer tomography study. Niger J Surg 2018;24(2):90-4.
7. Gala V, Tirpude V, Shah D, Doshi A, Fernandes G. A retrospective cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) study of the assessment of the length of the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve. Int J Sci Res Sci Technol 2018;4(5):828-32.
8. Goyushov S, Tözüm MD, Tözüm TF. Assessment of morphological and anatomical characteristics of mental foramen using cone beam computed tomography. Surg Radiol Anat 2018;40(10):1133-9.
9. Kabak SL, Zhuravleva NV, Melnichenko YM, Savrasova NA. Study of the mandibular incisive canal anatomy using cone beam computed tomography. Surg Radiol Anat 2017;39(6):647-55.
10. Sener E, Onem E, Akar GC, Govsa F, Ozer MA, Pinar Y, et al. Anatomical landmarks of mandibular interforaminal region related to dental implant placement with 3D CBCT: comparison between edentulous and dental mandibles. Surg Radiol Anat 2018;40(6):615-23.
11. He P, Truong MK, Adeeb N, Tubbs RS, Iwanaga J. Clinical anatomy and surgical significance of the lingual foramina and their canals. Clin Anat 2017;30(2):194-204.
12. Pires CA, Bissada NF, Becker JJ, Kanawati A, Landers MA. Mandibular incisive canal: cone beam computed tomography. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2012;14:67-73.
13. Al-Ani O, Nambiar P, Ha KO, Ngeow WC. Safe zone for bone harvesting from the interforaminal region of the mandible. Clin Oral Implants Res 2013;24 Suppl A100:115-121.
14. Kaya Y, Sencimen M, Sahin S, Okcu KM, Dogan N, Bahcecitapar M. Retrospective radiographic evaluation of the anterior loop of the mental nerve: comparison between panoramic radiography and spiral computerized tomography. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008;23:919-925.
15. Ngeow WC, Dionysius DD, Ishak H, Nambiar P. A radiographic study on the visualization of the anterior loop in dentate subjects of different age groups. J Oral Sci 2009;51:231-237.
16. Langley-DeGroot M, Joshi Y, Lehman D, Rao S. Atypical neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with paliperidone long-acting injection: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2016;36(3):277-9.
17. Lobo TM, Patil RC, Cune MS. Bone dimension assessment for placement of implants in the interforaminal region of the mandible: A cone beam computed tomography study. Int J Appl Dent Sci 2018;4(1):101-5.
18. Kabak SL, Zhuravleva NV, Melnichenko YM, Savrasova NA. Study of the mandibular incisive canal anatomy using cone beam computed tomography. Surg Radiol Anat 2017;39(6):647-55.
19. Makris N, Stamatakis H, Syriopoulos K, Tsiklakis K, van der Stelt PF. Evaluation of the visibility and the course of the mandibular incisive canal and the lingual foramen using cone-beam computed tomography. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21:766-771.
20. Nimigean V, Sirbu VD, Nimigean VR, Bădiţă DG, Poll A, Moraru SA, et al. Morphological assessment of the mandibular canal trajectory in edentate subjects. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018;59(1):235-42.
21. Uchida Y, Noguchi N, Goto M, Yamashita Y, Hanihara T, Takamori H, et al. Measurement of anterior loop length for the mandibular canal and diameter of the mandibular incisive canal to avoid nerve damage when installing endosseous implants in the interforaminal region: a second attempt introducing cone beam computed tomography. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009;67:744-750.
22. Filo K, Schneider T, Locher MC, Kruse AL, Lübbers HT. The inferior alveolar nerve's loop at the mental foramen and its implications for surgery. J Am Dent Assoc 2014;145:260-269.
23. Li X, Jin ZK, Zhao H, Yang K, Duan JM, Wang WJ. The prevalence, length and position of the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve in Chinese, assessed by spiral computed tomography. Surg Radiol Anat 2013;35:823-830.
24. de Oliveira Júnior MR, Saud AL, Fonseca DR, De-Ary-Pires B, Pires-Neto MA, de Ary-Pires R. Morphometrical analysis of the human mandibular canal: a CT investigation. Surg Radiol Anat 2011;33:345-352.
25. Levine MR, Allen RC. Manual of oculoplastic surgery. New York: Springer; 2018.
26. Dik EA, De Ruiter AP, van der Bilt A, Koole R. Effect on the contour of bone and soft tissue one year after harvesting chin bone for alveolar cleft repair. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;39(10):962-7.
27. Liang X, Jacobs R, Lambrichts I, Vandewalle G. Lingual foramina on the mandibular midline revisited: a macroanatomical study. Clin Anat 2007;20:246-251.
28. Vandewalle G, Liang X, Jacobs R, Lambrichts I. Macroanatomic and radiologic characteristics of the superior genial spinal foramen and its bony canal. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:581-586.
29. Direk F, Uysal II, Kivrak AS, Fazliogullari Z, Dogan NU, Karabulut AK. Mental foramen and lingual vascular canals of mandible on MDCT images: anatomical study and review of the literature. Anatom Sci Int 2018;93(2):244-53.
Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.