The Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Research (JCR) is a peer-reviewed, open access quarterly publication of the Craniomaxillofacial Research Center (CMFRC). It is approved by Medical Journals Commission of the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The JCR publishes original research, review articles, case reports, reports of new instruments or technical innovations, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and hypothesis related to the field of clinical, basic science and epidemiological aspects of Craniomaxillofacial region researches.
Background: One of the most common maxillary abnormalities is transverse deficiency, which can be a contributory factor in malocclusions. There are some evidence of successful non-surgical treatment of this type of discrepancy after puberty by using maxillary expansion techniques. The Miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expander (MARPE) method is a newly introduced method that has attracted the interest of many orthodontists. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic results of this technique in a systematic review. Materials and Methods: In this study, various databases including PubMed, Scopus, and ISI (Web of science) were queried with proper keywords, provided by PICO strategy of research, from 1980 to December 2020. Relevant articles were collected with restrictions on the English language. The full text of papers with all inclusion criteria was assessed. The therapeutic outcomes of MARPE were evaluated in the selected studies. Results: A total of 14 studies were included in the systematic review. Totally, 5 case report studies, 8 retrospective studies, and 1 case series study were reviewed. Cone-beam computed tomography was used as an outcome measure in all studies. In all reviewed studies, maxillary expansion occurred with high success rates in patients. Moreover, respiratory characteristics were also assessed in two studies measuring respiratory muscle strength, airflow and nasal and nasopharyngeal airway volume, showing benefits of MARPE. A study also examined three-dimensional soft tissue stereophotogrammetry. Based on these studies, the indication for using this method was a maxillary transverse deficiency as well as upper and lower arches crowding. No serious complications were reported in any of the reviewed studies. However, most studies did not perform long-term follow-ups and the age range of the subjects was mainly between 12 and 24 years. MARPE has been suggested as a treatment modality for correction of maxillary transverse deficiency in young adults but patients under the age of 14 may also benefit from this treatment in special conditions. Conclusion: A general review of the results of studies showed the high efficiency of MARPE technique in correcting maxillary transverse deficiency. Keywords: Maxillary transverse deficiency; Crossbite; Miniscrew; Miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expander (MARPE).
Background: Medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a chronic condition of the oral cavity resulting in mucosal ulceration and exposure of underlying necrotic bone, and the ensuing secondary complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and osteonecrosis of the jaw related to bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study. The samples were 20 patients taking bisphosphonates, that 10 of them were with MRONJ and 10 were non-MRONJ. Clinical examination of patients was performed to diagnose jaw osteonecrosis. Demographic data of the patients were recorded including age, sex, type of drug, duration and cause of drug intake, and measurement of serum vitamin D levels. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: In the patients without MRONJ, the mean age was 60.60 (±14.975) years, and in the patients with MRONJ, the mean age was 68.30 (69.92) years. As a whole, of the 16 female patients in this study, 10 cases (62.5%) were non- MRONJ and 6 cases (37.5%) were suffered by MRONJ. All of the male patients presented with MRONJ. In control group mean of vitamin D was 63.990 ng/ ml (±29.796) and in case group mean of vitamin D was 29.510 ng/ml (±23.723). The serum level of vitamin D (25-OHD) was significantly higher in control group than in the case group (p=0.010). Conclusion: According to our result, there were statistically significant relationship between age, sex, type of drug, vitamin D level, and MRONJ (p>0.05). Key words: MRONJ; Vitamin D; Bisphosphonates; Osteonecrosis of the jaws.
Background: Nowadays COVID-19 has become a pandemic in which global society experience multiple difficulties in management. It seems that olfactory dysfunction is one of the early occurring symptoms of this viral infection and many patients just show this symptom after they got infected. Considering so, olfactory dysfunction especially a decline in olfaction could potentially be used for screening purposes and preventing the disease to spread. Materials and Methods: 50 PCR-verified SARS-CoV-2 infected participants were assessed about their olfactory function adequacy using a Modified Version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) for the Iranian population called Iran Smell Identification Test (Iran-SIT). Participants scores were compared against normal population scores in this test and possible correlations of age and scores were explored as well. Results: Participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection generally obtained lesser scores in the mentioned test which means they experience a decline in olfactory function more, significantly. Aging also has a negative correlation with olfaction adequacy. Conclusion: Based on this article’s finding, olfactory function decrease is more frequent among SARS-CoV-2 infected people and potentially could be a suggestive indicator for screening programs. This indicator should be interpreted concerning patients’ age. Keywords: COVID-19; Olfactory dysfunction; Anosmia; Early detection.
Assessment of oral health status in chronic headache patients and its comparison with healthy controlIntroduction: Headache is a common problem with intense side effects on quality of life. Dental and maxillofacial problems, including dental infections and temporomandibular disorders may trigger the onset of headache or have direct impact on the intensity of headache. The purpose of this paper is assessment of oral health indexes in chronic headache patients and compare it with a healthy control group. Materials and Methods: Thirty chronic headache patients based on diagnosis by a neurologist were enrolled in our study and thirty healthy volunteers were recruited into the control group. Dental and periodontal examination were carried out in order to evaluate of the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index, the assessment of community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) index and determination of tooth wear status and oral health status. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS statistical package (version 20, IBM). Results: Mean age, educational level, tooth brushing, using dental floss and DMFT index was not statistically different between chronic headache patients and control group. There was no statistically significant difference in CPITN index between cases and control group (p-value=0.538). Conclusion: This study suggest that chronic headache patients have an acceptable oral hygiene which may be attribute to their attempts to omit pain from head and oral region. Considering high prevalence of chronic headache, planning a protocol for oral hygiene instruction is necessary. In this regard, coordination between neurologists and oral medicine specialists can be very effective. Keywords: Oral health; Chronic headache; DMFT index; CPITN index.
Introduction: Today, drug addiction is an important healthcare issue. Any helps to drug withdrawal may decrease its prevalence in the society. Ascorbic acid is a component, which can affect neurotransmitter systems as a regulator along with its cofactor role. Noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems are two important neurotransmitter systems in the opiate withdrawal syndrome. It seems that ascorbic acid can decrease the symptoms of opiate withdrawal through regulating the related systems. In this regard, the current study aimed to evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid on the symptoms of morphine withdrawal in Syrian mice. Materials and Methods: Male Syrian mice in eight experimental groups received incremental doses of morphine as 10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg within the first, second, third, and fourth days of the experiment, respectively, through intraperitoneal injection, twice a day, and the control group received and equal amount of saline. On the fifth day, six groups of morphine addicts received ascorbic acid with six doses of 10, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800mg/kg through intraperitoneal injection. Then, naloxone 2mg/kg was injected to all groups including morphine alone and morphine with acute does of ascorbic acid. Then, withdrawal symptoms were evaluated for 30 minutes. Results: Administration of an acute dose of ascorbic acid reduced dose dependent withdrawal symptoms in such a way that 10, 50, and 100mg/kg doses of ascorbic acid reduced “writhing” symptom, 200mg/kg reduced “jumping” symptom, and 400 and 800mg/kg reduced “climbing, jumping, and standing” symptoms. Conclusion: It seems that ascorbic acid administration can improve the symptoms of opiate withdrawal syndrome. More studies on human population can also indicate the therapeutic effect of ascorbic acid on drug withdrawal. Keywords: Addiction; Morphine; Withdrawal syndrome; Ascorbic acid.
This article describes a new design by surgical Bone hook that is used for maxillary Le Fort 1 osteotomy. This instrument with high quality, without damage to surrounding tissues can be used in maxillofacial surgeries. Keywords: Maxillary osteotomy; Le Fort 1 osteotomy; Surgical bone hook.
Aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area can be challenging, especially in case of insufficient bone volume. In this clinical report, a guided bone regeneration procedure using the combination of xenograft and allograft with non-resorbable membrane was applied in the atrophic edentulous alveolar crest to reconstruct a proper implant bed. Moreover, Prosthetic tissue molding was performed to improve success and optimize aesthetics. This article provides information relevant to treatment plans, surgical procedures, and prosthetic management in aesthetically important areas. Keywords: Dental implants; Alveolar ridge augmentation; Membranes; Dental prosthesis; Implant-supported.