The Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Research (JCR) is a peer-reviewed, open access quarterly publication of the Craniomaxillofacial Research Center (CMFRC). It is approved by Medical Journals Commission of the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The JCR publishes original research, review articles, case reports, reports of new instruments or technical innovations, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and hypothesis related to the field of clinical, basic science and epidemiological aspects of Craniomaxillofacial region researches.

Current Issue

Vol 9, No 3 (Summer 2022)

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 33 | views: 52 | pages: 110-117
    Introduction: Oral mucosa is one of the body’s most sensitive tissues. Due to the prevalence of oral ulcers and the effect of cancers on the oral mucosa, treating oral lesions is particularly important. Matricaria chamomilla is widely used in traditional medicine. Chamomile compounds have antibacterial، antiviral, anti-inflammatory and accelerate epithelialization. However no systematic study has been undertaken on the application of chamomile in treating oral lesions. Therefore this study aims to determine the medicinal use of chamomile in dentistry. Materials and Methods: This systematic review searched major international electronic databases, including PubMed, ISI and Scopus, from August 1998 to August 2021. The articles included in this review were clinical trials in which the participants used chamomile as a mouthwash or gel. Results: In this study, the therapeutic effects of chamomile were evaluated in 14 clinical trial studies. Most of the studies reviewed in the articles referred to the properties of flavonoid compounds with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of chamomile. Conclusion: Today, medicinal plants are used in treatment and one of the most common plants used for medicinal purposes is chamomile. It is used in dentistry, and its positive effects on plaque, gingivitis, caries, mucositis and its antibacterial effects have been reported. Keywords: Chamomilla; Oral mucosa; Systematic review.

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 33 | views: 42 | pages: 118-127
    Introduction: Due to the increasing prevalence of COVID-19 and its effects on the sense of taste and smell, we analyzed Blood electrolyte levels and biomarkers in COVID-19 patients who have a sign of anosmia and ageusia in Zanjan, Iran, and its relationship with biochemical blood indicators. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study included all hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. We registered laboratory parameters. A questionnaire that validity and reliability have already been confirmed was used to assess anosmia and ageusia. Statistical analysis was evaluated using a bivariate Bayesian logistic regression in the binomial distribution. Results: A total of 450 COVID-19 patients completed the study (221 females). The mean age of the patients was 56.36±17.34 years. 31.8% and 24.9% of patients reported anosmia and ageusia. There was no significant relationship between anosmia and ageusia with age, gender, place of hospitalization, marriage status, duration of hospitalization, and CT scan (p<0.05). The Male’s platelet was 18.72 lower than the female’s (p=0.002). Male’s C-reactive protein was 4.96 units higher than female (p=0.002). In hospitalized persons for less than four days and people under 39 years of age, CRP levels were lower (P=0.001, P=0.019 respectively). The Levels of lactate dehydrogenase in patients with anosmia were 51.72 units less than in patients without anosmia (p=0.010). Conclusion: These results suggest that anosmia and ageusia are prevalent symptoms in Iranian COVID-19 patients. More information on serum biomarkers would help us to establish a greater degree of accuracy on this matter. Keywords: COVID-19; Anosmia; Ageusia; C-reactive protein; Lactate dehydrogenase.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 33 | views: 37 | pages: 128-134
    Aim: To evaluate the relative ability of 4mg dose of preoperative Dexamethasone, administered submucosally, to reduce the postoperative pain, swelling and trismus after third molar surgery. Materials and Methods: The total 40 patient required surgical removal of a single mandibular third molar were included and divided into two groups, the experimental group (20 cases) received intraoperative submucosal injection of 4mg Dexamethasone buccally around the tooth at three points after the onset of anesthesia and the control group (20 cases) received no drugs. The maximum interincisal distance and facial contours were measured at baseline and at post-surgery days 2 and 7. The measurement of pain was done using visual analog scale (VAS). Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in the severity of postoperative edema in the experimental group by the second postoperative day. While both groups saw a reduction in discomfort and trismus, there were no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusion: The findings support submucosal injection of Dexamethasone (4mg) to decrease postoperative edema. Low-dose Dexamethasone injection at the surgical site enhances drug concentration at the injury site without loss owing to diffusion or excretion. The submucosal technique was significantly effective in reduction of postoperative swelling and trismus. Keywords: Dexamethasone; Third molar; Pain; Trismus; Edema.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 27 | views: 30 | pages: 135-143
    Introduction: To preserve the peri-implant bone level during implant restorations, multiple variations have been made in the implant-abutment connections and bone level, and tissue level implants have been placed at the bone or tissue levels to restore the function of the lost teeth. This study compared the radiographic amount of crestal bone loss in bone-level and tissue-level implants in the implants supported mandibular overdentures. Materials and Methods: This study included 40 patients receiving bone-level and tissue-level implants with mandibular overdentures. A total number of 120 implants were placed by an experienced surgeon in a one-stage surgery. Panoramic images of patients immediately after surgery and at least one year after prosthetic loading were assessed. Bone loss values (distance between implant shoulder to proximal bone) were assessed in the bone-level and tissue-level implants on the radiographs using digital caliper on the surrounding areas of implants, including mesial and distal aspects. The data were subjected to a Student t-test. Results: The mean of Mesial Bone Loss (MBL) of the right canine was reported 0.74mm. The mean amount of Distal Bone Loss (DBL) of the right canine was 0.78mm, the mean of DBL of the first incisal was 0.75mm. The mean of MBL of the first incisal was 0.77mm, the mean of DBL of the left canine was 0.76mm. The mean of MBL of the left canine was 0.78mm. Distal and mesial bone loss in the canine and first incisor bone-level implants were slightly higher than respective tissue-level implants, but no statistically significant differences were noted in this regard. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, both bone-level and tissue-level implants can be successfully used for supporting mandibular overdentures. Since the amount of cervical bone loss was clinically acceptable in both groups (in a period of one to four years with an average of 2.1 years). This study recommends that clinicians choose the type of implant according to clinical need and judgement. Keywords: Crestal bone loss; Bone-level implant; Tissue-level implant; Implant-supported overdentures.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 34 | views: 34 | pages: 144-152
    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity with multiple complications associated with the disease and its treatments and a high mortality rate. In the present study we aimed to assess the diagnosis and management of these patients referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2010-2021, their survival rate and possible factors affecting mortality of the patients. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective descriptive-analytic study, patients diagnosed with oral SCC referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2010-2021 were included. Required data were gathered from the patients’ records and analyzed by SPSS software last version and Microsoft Excel using the Log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results: In the specified period 146 patients with oral SCC were admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital with a mean age of 63.4±18.1 years and a slightly higher prevalence of men. Most patients had an educational level of lower than diploma (60.2%), were living in urban areas (78.6%), were treated by a general dentist or a general practitioner (86.8%), primarily underwent surgery (78.8%) and their treatment followed the standard management for these patients (86.3%). 69.2% of the patients stayed alive until the studied period and the buccal mucosa was the most commonly involved location (51.7%). The mean survival of the patients was calculated to be 3384.3 days which was found to be affected by the educational level and compatibility of their treatment with standard guidelines. Conclusion: The mean survival of the subjects was 9.3 years. The survival of the patients decreased from 100% to 0.4% after the 12 years period which is promising. These results indicate the effectiveness of following standard treatment protocols and early diagnosis of the patients in early stages of the disease. Keywords: Oral squamous cell carcinoma; Survival; Kaplan-meier.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 27 | views: 31 | pages: 153-157
    Introduction: Ameloblastic fibroma is a rare mixed odontogenic tumor, affects the young population, its management is mainly surgical. We report in this work the first observation of a concomitant bimaxillary localization. Materials and Methods: This is a 31-year-old female patient with no pathological history who presented to our department for management of a maxillomandibular tumor. The clinical examination revealed a poor oral condition and a swelling of the alveolar ridges. The CT scan of the facial mass revealed a multilocular cystic lesion encompassing teeth in the maxillary and mandibular bone. The biopsy came back in favor of an odontoameloblastic fibroma. Management consisted of radical resection with reconstruction using local flaps. FOA is a tumor distinct from ameloblastoma, it affects the young patients without any predilection to gender. The radiological image is a mono or multilocular cystic image which poses a problem of differential diagnosis with other cystic tumors. The management is surgical, clinical and radiological postoperative surveillance is primordial given the risk of recurrence or sarcomatous transformation. Conclusion: The FOA was for a long time considered as a form of ameloblastoma, is a rare tumor in the mandibular localization is the most frequent, the bimaxillary localization has never been described and the case we presented is the first in literature. Keywords: Ameloblastic fibroma; Maxillomandibular; Radical surgery; Surveillance.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 28 | views: 32 | pages: 158-161
    Pleomorphic adenoma is a benign salivary gland tumor that is frequently seen in the parotid gland. It is very rare in minor salivary glands. The case we present is a case of pleomorphic adenoma originating from the buccal minor salivary gland, which is very rare in this localization. Keywords: Pleomorphic adenoma; Minor salivary gland; Buccal; Salivary gland tumors.
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