The Journal of Craniomaxillofacial Research (JCR) is a peer-reviewed, open access quarterly publication of the Craniomaxillofacial Research Center (CMFRC). It is approved by Medical Journals Commission of the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The JCR publishes original research, review articles, case reports, reports of new instruments or technical innovations, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and hypothesis related to the field of clinical, basic science and epidemiological aspects of Craniomaxillofacial region researches.

Current Issue

Vol 8, No 3 (Summer 2021)

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 38 | views: 63 | pages: 91-100
    Introduction and Aims: Loss of the bracket-tooth bond is one of the most common complaints of patients during orthodontic treatment. Various factors play a role in preventing the loss of such a strong bond between the bracket and tooth, one of which is the maintenance of proper isolation and prevention of contamination of tooth surface with blood during the surgical exposure of the impacted tooth. In case of bleeding during disimpaction treatment, the use of hemostatic agents might decrease the odds of tooth surface contamination with blood, resulting in a strong bond. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different hemostatic agents on the bond between the bracket and tooth. Materials and Methods: Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant previous studies published from 2010 to 2020. These studies’ titles and abstracts were evaluated for inclusion criteria. In vivo and in vitro studies evaluating the effect of hemostatic agents on the bracket-tooth bond were included. Results: Eight studies were included in the study based on inclusion criteria; five studies were in vitro, and two were in vivo; one study had both designs. Of in vitro studies evaluating the bond strength, five studies reported a higher bond strength in the control group than the group in which the tooth surfaces were contaminated with a hemostatic agent; besides, the bond strength in the hemostatic agent group was higher than that in the group in which the tooth surfaces were contaminated with blood. Of in vivo studies, two studies evaluated bracket failure as a criterion to evaluate bonding quality. In one of these studies, bracket failure in the control groups was more than the hemostatic agent group, and in the other study, it was more prevalent in the hemostatic agent group than the control groups. Studies comparing different hemostatic agents did not report any significant differences in bonding quality. Conclusion: It appears that the use of hemostatic agents in disimpaction treatments can prevent contamination of tooth surface with blood, increasing the bond strength between the bracket and tooth; however, care should be exercised to prevent tooth surface contamination with hemostatic agents. Keywords: Bracket; Orthodontic bonding; Hemostatic agent; Bond strength; Adhesive.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 68 | views: 104 | pages: 101-115
    Aim and Objective: One of the challenges we are currently facing is the COVID-19 pandemic. With its rapid spread around the world, it has become an unprecedented major health, human, and financial crisis. The saliva of COVID-19 patients contains the virus that can be transmitted. Various studies have shown the effect of mouthwashes in reducing the rate of transmission of the virus and, consequently, reducing the likelihood of infection. Therefore, we considered it important to examine the effect of using different mouthwashes by studying the existing data and articles. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by the review method. The keywords “coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, mouthwash, hydrogen Peroxide, chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine, cetylpyridinium chloride” were searched in articles and protocols in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Dimensions. The searched articles were submitted from January 2019 to April 2021. Only the articles in English were studied. Results: Among 23 reviewed studies, there were 15 review study, 4 in vitro study, two clinical trial, one letter to the editor in chief, and two studies that are, in fact, instructions of Australian and American dental community. 4 studies were published in 2021, 18 articles in 2020, and 1 article in 2019. By investigating 16 reports, Povidone-Iodine mouth wash was the most effective mouthwash ever mentioned. Hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse with nine mentions, chlorohexidine with seven mentions, cetylpyridinium chloride with four mentions, Essential oils with three mentions, and mouth rinses contains Citrox and beta-cyclodextrin, and Methylene blue with one mention was ranked next. Generally, most of the studies have recommended mouth rinses use in patients in dental clinics (or other recipients of health care services). They have emphasized their effectiveness in reducing the viral load in saliva and oral secretions. Conclusion: The results of the review showed that povidone-iodine mouthwash and hydrogen peroxide mouthwash can be the first and the second candidates to reduce viral load and, consequently, reduce disease transmission. However, more clinical studies are needed to confirm the results. Keywords: Covid-19; Coronavirus; 2019-nCoV; Mouthwash; Mouth rinse; Hydrogen peroxide; Chlorhexidine; Povidone-iodine; Cetylpyridinium chloride.

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 43 | views: 69 | pages: 116-121
    Background: Cleft lip and cleft palate are the most common maxillofacial congenital defects leading to facial deformity and complications in nutrition, respiration, and social interaction. The current study aims to report early findings of the pilot registry for congenital cleft lip and cleft palate in Iran and discuss limitations and further goals to collect and implicate information of cleft newborn patients. Materials and Methods: A 3-year hospital-based multicenter prospective cohort study of the congenital cleft lip and cleft palate registry was performed in various hospitals in Iran from 2018 to 2020. Newborns with oral clefts were included, and the type of cleft, location, geographical place, and gender of each patient were recorded. The descriptive statistics were reported as means and percentages analyzed with fisher exact test using SPSS software ver. 22 (IBM, Chicago, US). The P-value<0.05 considered as significant. Results: From 336 registered newborns with cleft lip and cleft palate, 40.1% were females, while 59.9% were males. The prevalence of lip cleft was 31.5%, while 17.6% have palate cleft. Also, 50.9% suffer from both cleft lip and palate simultaneously (P-value<0.05). The frequent location of clefts were bilateral cleft lip and cleft palate with 50% of the cases (P-value<0.05). Also, 28.2% and 21.8% had right-side and left side unilateral cleft lip and cleft palate, respectively. Tabriz, Mashhad, Tehran were the most frequent location of clefts. Conclusion: Despite the primary statistics and trends presented in this study, the data quality could improve through some limited modifications. Also, the provinces with a high prevalence of congenital deformities need critical attention and provide adequate healthcare. Keywords: Cleft lip; Cleft palate; Congenital deformity; Epidemiology.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 27 | views: 51 | pages: 122-128
    Introduction: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an effective cytokine in angiogenesis and bone remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of locally injected bFGF on movement rate and root resorption during orthodontic force application in dogs. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal study, four 10-12 months male dogs were selected and were randomly allocated into two groups. A week following insertion of closing coil spring between the canines and second premolars, 50μg of bFGF was injected to the case group and phosphate saline to the control group once per month. One month after second injection, the distance between the mentioned teeth were measured. Also, root resorption percentage were analyzed on the second premolars. Results: Average maxillary tooth movement rate in case and control groups were found 2.53 and 1.35mm/month respectively. The correspondent mandibular measures were 2.23mm and 1.15mm. These differences were statistically significant (P<0.0001). In respect to root resorption, the differences were found statistically significant (P<0.01) for coronal region in maxilla, which was higher in control group. Regarding the apical and middle regions of both jaws as well as coronal region of mandible the differences were insignificant. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the local injection of bFGF can increase tooth movement rate and has the potential to decrease root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Keywords: Tooth movement; Root resorption; Fibroblast growth factor.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 49 | views: 57 | pages: 129-142
    Background and Aim: Oral cancer is a major public health issue worldwide; it remains a highly lethal and disfiguring disease, it is primarily a disease of epithelial origin, it has various clinicopathological pictures. is to demonstrate various clinical and pathological presentations of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Iraqi population. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 cases of histologically diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma collected from the main centers of Sulaymaniyah teaching hospital/Hiwa cancer center Hospital/Sulaymaniyah/Iraq were analyzed according to age, sex, site, clinical, and pathological presentation of oral squamous cell carcinoma at the time of presentation, and histological grading. Results: Patients in their sixth decade of life were the most commonly affected with a male-tofemale ratio of 1.4:1. The tongue was the most frequently affected site, followed by the floor of the mouth. The most common clinical presentation is ulceration and swelling. More than 40% of the cases were well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Oral cancer is increasingly seen as a major health problem, in line with the general trend in the region, the need for inter-professional health care delivery approaches for reducing oral cancer mortality and improving patients’ quality of life. Keywords: Squamous cell carcinoma; Oral cancer; Clinical presentation; Histopathology; Tumorgrading.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 30 | views: 51 | pages: 143-149
    Introduction: Oral health is one of the most important components of health and has a great impact on the quality of life. One of the strategies to promote oral health is to increase knowledge, attitude, and practice among people in the community. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of oral health in patients referred to Zanjan Dental School. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 196 patients referred to Zanjan Dental School and their knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding oral health were assessed using a valid and reliable questionnaire. After the necessary time to answer the questions, the questionnaires were collected and the obtained data were entered into the statistical software SPSS version 22. T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation were used to determine the effect of gender, level of education, and age on patients’ knowledge, attitude and practice, respectively. Significance level was also considered 0.05. Results: The mean age of patients was 32.52±12.81 years and 97 patients (49.5%) were male. The mean and standard deviation of the knowledge score was 3.27±1.31 (moderate). This rate was 19.23±2.63 for attitude (good) and 3.25±1.38 (moderate) for performance. Patients’ knowledge and practice were significantly higher in females (P=0.020 and P=0.009, respectively). Also, patients with university education provided higher knowledge, attitudes, and practice (P<0.001). Patients’ age also had a significant but inverse relationship with knowledge, attitude, and practice (P<0.001). Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of patients referred to Zanjan Dental School was moderate; although their attitude was at a good level. In order to increase patients’ knowledge and practice, there is a need to provide solutions such as educational programs to different parts of society. Keywords: Oral hygiene; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice.
  • XML | PDF | downloads: 42 | views: 61 | pages: 150-158
    Introduction: An impacted tooth is the one which fails to attain its normal functional position within the expected developmental period. They are associated with various pathologies. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the pattern of occurrence, presentation, and management of impacted teeth among patients attending Muhimbili National Hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study that included all patients aged≥21 years and had impacted teeth. The patients were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire and later examined clinically and radiographically. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Results: A total of 4,668 patients comprising of 1938 (41.5%) males and 2730 (58.5%) females were attended. Among these, 264 (5.6%) patients comprising of 152 (57.6%) males and 112 (42.4%) females had impacted teeth. The 21-25 years age group was the most (59.2%) commonly affected.Mandibular third molars were the most (64.9%) impacted teeth followed by 167 (33.4%) maxillary third molars. Pain was the most common complaint in 79.1% of patients. Mesio-angular impaction was the most common angulation in 196 (39.9%) impacted teeth, followed by vertical impaction in 142 (28.7%) and disto-angular 103 (21.0%) impacted teeth. A majority (66.6%) of impacted teeth were treated by open surgical removal followed by 53 (10.5%) impactions by closed disimpaction. Conclusion: The occurrence of impacted teeth among the patients attended at MNH was 5.6%. Mandibular third molars were the most commonly impacted teeth with mesio-angular being the commonest type of angulation of impacted teeth. Pericoronitis was the most common pathology associated with impacted teeth, others included dental caries, ameloblastoma, and dentigerous cysts. Surgical disimpaction was the most frequently used treatment method with good healing results. Keywords: Impacted tooth; Mesio-angular impaction; Pericoronitis; Vertical impaction; Disto-angular impaction.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 32 | views: 57 | pages: 159-163
    Odontogenic myxoma is a benign mesenchymal tumor that appears to be associated with odontogenic ectomesenchyme of the growing teeth. This tumor, which often occurs in the second and third decades of life, is extremely rare and often asymptomatic in children. However, no theoretical consensus exists in the literature over the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic methods of a rare case of odontogenic myxoma in a 13-year-old child. Keywords: Odontogenic myxoma; Maxilla; Children.
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